When you are desperately trying to conceive, it probably feels like you see pregnant women everywhere you go. Repeated disappointments can put a great strain on a couple and can also make them feel isolated from the rest of world, but infertility is not at all uncommon. Research suggests that 1 in 7 couples in the UK experience difficulty in conceiving; that works out at approximately 3.5 million people.

Is infertility usually a woman’s problem?

Better scientific understanding has moved us on considerably from the days where the blame was firmly laid at the woman’s door. The causes of infertility are shared by both genders: around a third of cases are due to the woman’s problem, a third to the man’s, and a third either a combination of both partners or an unknown reason. Causes include irregular ovulation, blocked fallopian tubes and poor quality of semen.

What can we do?

Not only are you not alone in your struggle for a baby but you don’t have to struggle on alone: by booking a consultation with a fertility expert such as London female gynaecologist Miss Amanda Tozer, your specific fertility problem can be diagnosed and, in many cases, a treatment plan prescribed.

The first step is to ascertain what lies behind your conception difficulties; to this end, Amanda Tozer will run a series of diagnostic tests, including a pelvic ultrasound. With the results in hand, she will then talk you through your treatment options. While it is important to bear in mind that not every instance of infertility can be explained or treated, there are many that can.

By offering the full range of fertility treatments – from endometrial scratching and ovulation induction to IVF and ICSI – Miss Tozer has helped many London couples achieve their dream of having a baby.

The term ‘recurrent miscarriage’ is used when a woman has three or four miscarriages in a row At this point, she will usually be referred to a specialist to investigate what might be behind it. Affecting approximately one in 100 women, recurrent miscarriage may be caused by various problems or conditions; however, there may be no tangible cause and it would then be called an ‘unexplained miscarriage’.

What causes recurrent miscarriage?

A possible cause of recurrent miscarriage is a genetic one. You or your partner may have a chromosomal abnormality, or the combination of your chromosomes creates an abnormality; while it does not adversely affect you, it may cause problems when passed on to your baby – this is called an ‘unbalanced translocation’. Blood disorders – antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), blood clotting problems and some inherited blood clotting disorders – can also be a cause. Other areas to     investigate are the uterus – abnormal uterine shape, fibroids and cervical weakness can all play a part in recurrent miscarriage – and hormones: conditions such as polycystic ovaries can affect fertility.

What treatments for recurrent miscarriage are available?

New findings and developments help specialists such as London female gynaecologist Amanda Tozer to understand why recurrent miscarriages occur; that knowledge informs a fertility treatment plan. For example, if the diagnosed cause is a translocation problem and you are considering IVF, the embryos can be screened for abnormalities before implantation. If carrying a baby to term is threatened by a weak cervix, a simple cervical stitch procedure may help. It is important to bear in mind that a cause may not be found; if it is, it may not be treatable, or the treatment of miscarriage may not be successful. However, at Miss Amanda Tozer’s London fertility clinic, you can be confident of receiving personalised and compassionate care from a specialist with years of experience in this field.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a very common menstrual disorder affecting around 1 in 10 women. It is diagnosed when a woman has two of the three following symptoms: ovaries with many small cysts, a raised level of the male hormone testosterone and irregular periods.

Why is my fertility affected?

The exact cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome is not known; several factors are likely to be involved including insulin resistance and a high level of luteinising hormone. What is known is that one symptom is the abnormal development of the follicles in the ovaries: they often fail to develop fully, causing problems with ovulation and therefore irregular periods. Ovulation is essential to the conception process: a reduction in periods tends to result in reduced fertility.

What are my treatment options?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is often associated with being overweight or obese. If this is the case, then the first step is to lose weight as this can significantly improve your chances of regular menstruation. After this point, you may be a suitable candidate for fertility treatment or, in some cases, surgical intervention.

During a consultation at the London Clinic, female gynaecologist Miss Amanda Tozer will take your full medical history before conducting a pelvic ultrasound and running blood tests. Diagnosing your individual case, Miss Tozer will then advise you on the most appropriate treatment. Many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome respond well to fertility drugs such as Clomiphene whereby a more predictable window for conception is created by inducing ovulation.

Miss Tozer is a Consultant Gynaecologist and Sub-Specialist in Reproductive Medicine. She has treated the whole spectrum of menstrual disorders, helping many women to achieve the family they desire. Testimonials from her previous patients in London credit her for her attentive, personal and encouraging care.

The average age for a woman in the UK to start the menopause is 52 but, as many women start experiencing symptoms before they reach 40, this figure does not give a true indication of when it is likely to happen to you. And just as the menopausal age has a vast range, so does the list of possible signs, and the degree to which you will suffer – if at all.

What are the symptoms of the menopause?

Often, one of the first signs is a change to your menstrual cycle, with your periods getting lighter or heavier, or more or less frequent. Many women report a loss of libido and vaginal dryness that can make sex uncomfortable or even painful. Hot flushes are a very common symptom; the feeling that your body is burning is usually more pronounced over the chest area and the head. Much research has been done on hot flushes but as yet there are no conclusive explanations. Other symptoms include headaches, heart palpitations, insomnia and mood changes. These symptoms usually, but not always, clear once the menopause is behind you; by seeking the advice of an expert such as London female gynaecologist Miss Amanda Tozer, you give yourself the best chance of dealing effectively with everything the menopause throws at you.

Is there a cure?

There is no cure for the menopause itself but it is possible to treat most of the symptoms with medication and hormone replacement therapy. The menopause can be both physically and emotionally challenging for some women and it is important that they are supported through this difficult time. At Miss Amanda Tozer’s menopause clinic in London’s Harley Street, menopausal women can get the help they need to manage the side effects. An experienced female gynaecologist, Miss Tozer has helped hundreds of women through their menopause, offering effective treatments and sound advice and support.

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Dr Amanda Tozer graduated from The University of Wales College of Medicine in 1990 and went on to specialise in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. In 1997 she commenced a clinical research fellow position at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine at Bart’s and The London NHS Trust and went on to subspecialty training in Reproductive Medicine and obtained a consultant post at Bart’s in 2004.